Blockchain Scalability: A Guide to Sharding and Layering Architecture

AmazeChain's sharding and layering technology makes blockchains infinitely scalable
sharding and layering

In this in-depth article, we will delve into the intricacies of blockchain sharding and layering architecture, scalability challenges, and the concept of the blockchain trilemma. Our aim is to provide you with a comprehensive understanding of the interplay between scalability, security, and decentralization in blockchain technology.

Throughout this article, we will explore various solutions, both at the Layer 1 and Layer 2 levels, that have been proposed to address these challenges and enhance the overall scalability of blockchain networks.


Understanding Blockchain Layer Architecture

Blockchain technology has revolutionized various industries by introducing decentralized, immutable, and transparent ledgers. At its core, a blockchain consists of blocks linked together through cryptographic hashing, forming a chain. Each block contains a list of transactions and a reference to the previous block.

The Components of a Block

Blocks within a blockchain typically contain four main components:

  1. Block Header: This section includes metadata like the block’s timestamp, a reference to the previous block, a nonce, and the Merkle root of all transactions in the block.
  1. Transactions: These are records of various activities within the blockchain, such as cryptocurrency transfers, smart contract executions, or data storage.
  1. Proof-of-Work/Proof-of-Stake: Depending on the consensus mechanism, a block may require proof of work (PoW) or proof of stake (PoS) to be added to the chain.
  1. Difficulty Target: A representation of the difficulty level required to mine or validate a block, ensuring a consistent block time.

Scalability Challenges in Blockchain Technology

As blockchain adoption grows, it faces significant challenges in scalability, hindering its widespread application in various industries. The main challenges are related to transaction throughput, latency, and network congestion.

This is where the Layer 1 AmazeChain’s breakthrough technology in pre-sorted layering and sharding comes in. In the following subsections, we’ll discuss the fundamental issues contributing to challenges in blockchain, and then take a look at how AmazeChain solves them.

The Blockchain Trilemma

The blockchain trilemma refers to the trade-offs between three crucial aspects: security, decentralization, and scalability. Achieving a high level of security while maintaining decentralization can significantly impact scalability, and vice versa. Balancing these three factors has proven to be a complex task, leading to ongoing research and development efforts.

Layer 1 Challenges

Layer 1 challenges pertain to the core blockchain protocol and its limitations in processing a high number of transactions per second. Two widely discussed solutions to address these challenges are:

  • Proof-of-Stake (PoS): PoS is an alternative consensus mechanism that relies on validators staking their coins as collateral. Validators are then chosen to produce new blocks and validate transactions based on the number of coins they have staked. PoS aims to reduce the energy consumption associated with PoW and improve scalability.
  • Sharding: Sharding involves partitioning the blockchain into smaller shards, each capable of processing transactions independently. This can significantly increase transaction throughput and enhance scalability. This is what AmazeChain does and it’s proved incredibly successful in its inefficient use of computing processing power. The Ethereum network attempted to introduce sharding during the Ethereum Merge but postponed the upgrade indefinitely because it proved too challenging.

AmazeChain Solves the Blockchain Trilemma

To solve each element of the blockchain rrilemma at once, you need to ensure enough people continue to decentralize the network. You also need an increasing amount of server power, in line with the growing number of users, so that everyone can continue to make transaction on the blockchain.

Added to this, you need to minimize the number of potential security flaws, such as bridging solutions. Layer 2s use bridging solutions (see below) inevitably create backdoors for hackers to exploit. This issue resulted in record-breaking crypto thefts last year, which caused huge reputational damage to Web3 in 2022.

AmazeChain’s solution is simple: use the computers in everyone’s pockets, all over the world, to power a Layer 1 blockchain: we created a decentralized network that runs on mobile phones. Every smartphone in the world – over 6.84 billion of them – is now a potential computer server. As each person joins our network and makes transactions, they also contribute to transaction validation. They both use and run AmazeChain.

The more AmazeChain scales, the more powerful it becomes. Decentralization also increases, as more people run their own mobile nodes and transaction validation is more distributed. And because AmazeChain is a Layer 1, it stays secure by minimizing the number of potential flaws in the security architecture.

Layer 2 Scaling Solutions

Layer 2 solutions focus on building additional infrastructure on top of the base blockchain layer to further improve scalability and transaction throughput.

Nested Blockchains (Sidechains)

Nested blockchains, also known as sidechains, are separate blockchains connected to the main chain. They enable offloading specific types of transactions from the main chain to enhance scalability without compromising security.

State Channels

State channels allow multiple parties to conduct a series of transactions off-chain while only settling the final state on the main blockchain. This reduces the burden on the main chain and improves overall scalability.

Layer 3 Scaling Solutions

Layer 3 scaling solutions focus on developing applications or functionalities that operate independently of the underlying blockchain layer.


Rollups are a technique that allows a large number of transactions to be bundled together off-chain and then submitted to the main chain as a single transaction. This considerably increases transaction throughput and lowers costs.

Future Improvement Means Maintaining Blockchain Principles While Fixing Flaws

In conclusion, blockchain layer architecture and scalability solutions play a vital role in addressing the challenges faced by blockchain technology. By understanding the blockchain trilemma and creating technology to distribute our network power across every smartphone in the world, AmazeChain has paved the way for mainstream adoption of blockchain technology.

Remember, as the landscape of blockchain technology evolves, continuous research and development efforts are essential to overcome scalability challenges while maintaining the core principles of security and decentralization.

Implementing these solutions will not only enhance the efficiency and scalability of blockchain networks, but also open up endless possibilities for a decentralized future.